Cardiac Muscle, Dr. D. Penney





Table 3. Factors affecting cardiac muscle inotropic state.

Intrinsic Extrinsic
force-frequency relation (Bowditch) catecholamines
ischemia (-) acetylcholine
myocardial depression or failure digitaloids
myosin isoforms increased extracellular Ca++
Ca++ antagonists
glucagon
thyroid hormone
Beta-adrenergic blocking agents






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