Turbulence & Rheology, Dr. D. Penney



AORTIC SYSTOLIC TURBULENCE ("functional" = normal)

low in frequency; difficult to hear

Most common in:

  • thin people; especially children

  • conditions of increased cardiac output (normal or pathological)

  • elderly, with dilated aorta (pathological)

  • anemia, with low hematocrit (pathological)





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