13. Pressure is the only form of energy determining blood flow.
14. Pressure in veins is always low (ie. below 50 mmHg); lower than in any artery.
15. Pressure in arteries is always high (ie. above 50 mmHg); higher than in any vein.
16. Flow velocity in veins is always low (sluggish).
17. Gravity has no influence on the cardiovascular system.
18. Blood flow in the up-raised arm declines sharply with resulting pain and/or numbness because the heart must pump up to the fingers against gravity.
19. Change in vascular resistance to blood flow can be determined by assessing the change in arterial pressure alone.
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