Cardiac Performance, Dr. D. Penney

Table 2.02. The many factors affecting stroke volume. Not all are of equal importance.

Preload Afterload Contractility Synergy of Contraction Distensibility of Ventricles
blood volume sympathetic & parasympathetic impulses sympathetic & parasympathetic impulses arrhythmias ventricular compliance
posture static muscle contraction force frequency relations (Bowditch) tachycardias ventricular elasticity
venous tone anatomical impedance circulating catecholamines
cardiac output intrathoracic pressure pharmacologic depressants
atrial 'kick' inotropic drugs
muscle pump loss of myocardium
intrathoracic pressure Ca++ -ATPase activity
heart rate heart rate hypertrophy

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