Ejection fraction (Ef) is the ratio of stroke volume and end-diastolic volume and may be determined by cardiac catheterization, echocardiography, or radionuclide techniques. The average normal value is 0.65. Values less than 0.50 are abnormal, while values less than 0.40 usually indicate heart failure.
Wall motion can be determined from the end-diastolic and end-systolic silhouettes. It may show:
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