Page 14, Cardiac Cycle, Dr. D. Penney


Murmurs are abnormal heart sounds, usually caused by turbulence (See Chapter 6) . Murmurs can be systolic, diastolic, combined systolic and diastolic, and continuous. Mitral insufficiency (incompetence, regurgitation) (Figure 1.06) produces a systolic murmur that is heard throughout systole, from S1 to beyond S2. Aortic stenosis (vessel narrowing) (Figure 1.07) also produces a systolic murmur.

Aortic insufficiency, on the other hand (Figure 1.08), produces a diastolic murmur, as aortic blood flows backward into the ventricle. A continuous murmur results from patent ductus arteriosus. These valve and vessel defects also produce various pressure alterations in the heart and great vessels, such as elevated left atrial pressure in mitral regurgitation and elevated left ventricle pressure in aortic stenosis.

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