Cardiac Cycle, Dr. D. Penney


  1. To understand the cyclic event by which blood is given additional potential and kinetic energy by the heart as it moves from the venous to arterial muscle contraction.

  2. To know the changes in pressure, volume and flow and the associated sounds and electrical events (ECG) at each stage of the cycle, and to know how these parameters change with changing heart rate.

  3. To understand the concept of cardiac reserve.

  4. To understand the forces and factors involved in heart filling and emptying and the opening and closing of valves.

  5. To know normal values for pressure, volume and blood PO2 and oxygen saturation, the normal heart sounds, and how they are altered in various abnormal conditions.

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