Electrocardiography, Dr. D. Penney

Table 8. DIPOLES

Movement of charge can be characterized in terms of a number of dipoles. Dipoles have a (-) tail, (+) head. The vector equals the sum of the dipoles.


  • If exploratory electrode is placed right of center, (+) charge is encountered & a positive deflection results.

  • If exploratory electrode is placed left of center, it encounters surface negativity & the result is negative deflection.

  • If electrode is placed above or below the horizontal line at an oblique angle the amplitude of deflection decreases.

  • If electrode is at midline, ie. perpendicular to the dipole, no electrical signal is seen due to charges cancelling out.



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