Developmental Pathophysiology, Develop. Physiol., Dr. D. Penney
Table 4.02. Causes of Birth Defects.
- Genetic Transfer - Receives from mother and father; may be dominant or recessive.
- Klinefelter syndrome
- Turner syndrome
- DiGeorge syndrome
- Mutagenicity - pre- or post-conception (ovum, sperm, embryo, fetus, later on). A woman has all her ova from the time of her birth!
- Down syndrome
- Trisomy 13, 18
- Teratogenicity - post-conception only; may or may not (e.g. cortisol) be heritable; must be able to cross the placenta.
- Maternal Diseases - Diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythrematosus.
- Lactation - low molecular weight and/or fat soluble non-biodegradable substances (e.g. DDT, PCB's).
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