Developmental Pathophysiology, Develop. Physiol., Dr. D. Penney


Quick Study Index - Module 23:


  • Birth Defects - General

    Critical periods in human development (Figure 4.01)

    Reasons for embryonal/fetal susceptibility (Table 4.01)

    Birth defect causes (Table 4.02 )

    Major historical examples (Table 4.03)

    Causal factors in congenital heart defects (Table 4.04)

    Maternal problems: Increased morbidity / mortality (Table 4.04a)


  • Birth Defects - Cardiovascular

    Congenital circulatory defects (Table 4.05)

    Shunt characteristics (Table 4.06)

    Shunts - 2 Types (Table 4.07)

    Dye dilution curves (Figure 4.02)

    Cyanosis (Table 4.09)

    Major forms of congenital Heart Defects producing cyanosis (Table 4.08)

    Definitions (Table 4.10)

    Murmurs (Table 4.11)

    Frequency of congenital heart defects (Table 4.12)


  • Atrial Septal Defects

    Atrial Septal Defect (Figure 4.03)

    Types of Atrial Septal Defects (Table 4.13)

    Characteristics of Atrial Septal Defects (Table 4.14)

    Atrial Septal Defect at fossa ovalis (Figure 4.04)


  • Ventricular Septal Defects

    Ventricular Septal Defect (Figure 4.05)

    Types of Ventricular Septal Defects(Table 4.15)

    Characteristics of Ventricular Septal Defects (Table 4.16)

    Ventricular Septal Defect with left to right shunt (Figure 4.06)

    Characteristics in large/unrestrictive VSD (Table 4.17)

    Characteristics in large VSD with PVOD (Table 4.18)

    Use of oximetry to investigate VSD (Figure 4.07)


  • Other Defects

    Pulmonary stenosis (Figure 4.08)

    Characteristics in pulmonary stenosis (Table 4.19)

    Tetralogy of Fallot (Figure 4.09)

    Characteristics in Tetralogy of Fallot (Table 4.20)

    Characteristics in Transposition of the Great Arteries (Table 4.21)

    Coarctation of the aorta (Table 4.22)

    Some other congenital heart defects (Figure 4.10)

  • Ductus Arteriosus
  • Mitral Stenosis
  • Mitral Insufficiency
  • Aortic Stenosis
  • Aortic Insufficiency

    Congenital heart defects in the adult (Table 4.23)


  • Other Birth CV Problems

    Hyperviscosity/Polycythemia Syndrome (Table 4.24)

    Factors determining Blood Viscosity (Table 4.25)

    Etiology of the neonatal hyperviscosity syndrome (Table 4.26)

    Placental transfusion (Table 4.27)

    Events in intrauterine hypoxia and placental transfusion (Figure 4.11)

    Response to volume loading in the perinatal lamb (Figure 4.12)

    ODC of developing lambs (Figure 4.13)

    ODC of Fetal vs. Maternal sheep (Figure 4.14)


    Right above: Human embryo from Grays, 8.5 weeks of age.



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