Page 12, Developmental Pathophysiology, Develop. Physiol., Dr. D. Penney



Congenital Defects (cont...)

Congenital heart defects occur in approximately 1% of live births.

The VSD is the most common congenital heart defect (34%) (Table 4.12). Atrial septal defect (ASD) is second in frequency (15%) and patent ductus arteriosus is third (9%); thus, the common left to right shunts comprise 58% of the total.

The common right to left shunts comprise 12% of defects, while the common obstructive defects such as pulmonary artery stenosis, aortic stenosis, and coarctation of the aorta comprise 18%.

All the rest of the less common and complex cardiac defects make up the remaining 12%.


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