Many factors are proven or suspected factors in congenital heart defects. As stated previously, rubella causes patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonary valvular and/or pulmonary artery stenosis, and atrial septal defect (ASD).
Excessive fetal alcohol exposure (syndrome) is connected to an increased incidence of ventricular septal defect (VSD). Maternal lupus erythrematosus increases the incidence of congenital complete heart block (Table 4.04).
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