Developmental Pathophysiology, Develop. Physiol., Dr. D. Penney



Table 4.04B - Structural, Neurologic, Neuropsychologic and Psychiatric Disorders Observed in Humans Following Fetal Exposure to CO:

Morbidity / Mortality:

Abnormally low birth weight
Prematurity
Fetal demise, spontaneous abortion
Stillborn birth
Early postnatal death

Structural:

Softening in the basal ganglia
Damage to putamen, globus pallidus, striatum, red zone of substantia nigra and lateral nucleus of the thalamic area of the cortex (seen as loss of neurons)
Bilateral status marmoratus of the putamen
Damage to the centrum semiovale
Medial globus pallidus & subthalamic suffered nucleus neural loss
Microcystic cavitary degeneration of the white matter, cortex and basal ganglia
Injury to the cerebral cortex
Symmetrical temporal microgyria
Massive hemispheric destruction
Lesions in deeper layers of the grey matter
Telecephalic dysgenesis
Microcephaly
Hydrocephaly, Hydrocephalus internus
Cleft palate & lip
Oral cavity anomalies
Low set ears
Hypoplastic organ development (eg. external genitalia)
Malformations of the arms & legs
Mongoloid-type malformations
Multiple morphologic anomalies (eg. cardiac defects)
Cyanosis

Neurologic

Hyporeflexia & areflexia (little, no reflexes)
Tetraplegia
Strabismus
Athetosis
No speech
Cerebral palsy
Spasticity
Convulsions, seizures
Difficulty swallowing & sucking
Hypotonia
Behavior indicative of brain toxicity
Slight retardation in development
Minor neurologic deficits
Auditory impairment
Visual impairment
Bilateral retinal colobomata
Autism

Neuropsychologic & Psychiatric

Mental retardation
Retardation of psychomotor development
Memory impairment
Anxiety
Emotional instability


Note: For more detailed information, contact the webmaster (E-mail = dpenney@cmb.biosci.wayne.edu), or consult the book Carbon Monoxide, 1996, by David G. Penney, Ph.D.


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