Developmental Pathophysiology, Develop. Physiol., Dr. D. Penney

Self-Assessment - Module 23: (Cont.)

    9. With regard to ventricular septal defect (VSD):
    1. it is the most common congenital heart defect
    2. it usually occurs in the muscular part of the interventricular septum
    3. in a large or unrestrictive VSD the magnitude of flow is controlled by the resistances of the pulmonary and systemic vascular beds
    4. an oxygen step-up will occur in the right ventricle
    5. A and C are correct
    6. A, C and D are correct
    7. all are correct

    10. With regard to cardiomyocytes:

    1. each contains hundreds of nuclei, like skeletal muscle cells
    2. they stop mitotic division about midway through fetal development
    3. in the adult each is associated with approximately 10 capillaries
    4. in the human tetraploid, octaploid, etc. nuclei are common, and these increase in frequency with age
    5. A, B and C are correct
    6. only D is correct
    7. all are correct

    11. Following birth, right ventriclar mass declines relative to left ventricular mass because:

    1. the two sides of the heart are now operating in parallel array
    2. the output of the right ventricle is now less than that of the left ventricle
    3. pulmonary vascular resistance has risen sharply
    4. mean right ventricular pressure rises above that of the left ventricle
    5. the work load of the left ventricle increases greatly, while that of the right ventricle declines

    12. Left to right shunting of blood in an adult with a congenital heart defect may result in the following except:

    1. right ventricle enlargement
    2. tricuspid incompetence
    3. polycythemia
    4. pulmonary hypertension
    5. acyanosis

    13. Right to left shunt would be expected to be the cause of the following:

    1. polycythemia
    2. pulmonary stenosis
    3. anemia
    4. cyanosis
    5. A and D only
    6. all of the above

    14. A continuous murmur is heard in the following conditions:

    1. aortic stenosis
    2. patent ductus arteriosus
    3. mitral insufficiency
    4. aortic insufficiency
    5. tricuspid stenosis

    15. Heart failure is a disease only seen in the elderly. ( T / F )

    16. Heart failure is always due to loss of contractile ability of the heart muscle. ( T / F )


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