There is an increase in calculated peripheral resistance, both at rest and at increased workloads as compared to young individuals at the same workload.
There is a loss of the heart's ability to increase inotropicity (contractility) during exercise with increasing age, and an increased reliance on the Frank-Starling mechanism to attain elevated stroke volumes.
If atherosclerotic disease is present cardiovascular function will be compromised even more rapidly, and impaired function sooner or later becomes incompatible with life.
To review vascular resistance
To review cardiac cycle
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