CV Review, Essentials, Develop. Physiol., Dr. D. Penney


Self-Assessment - Module 20 (cont.)

8. A shift to the left of the hemoglobin-oxygen dissociation curve and decreasing P50 value indicate a decreased affinity for oxygen. (T / F)

9. The largest fractional volume of blood flow in the circulation is normally contained in:

  1. veins
  2. capillaries
  3. arterioles
  4. aorta

10. Turbulence of fluid flow in the human circulation frequently results from:

  1. increased hematocrit
  2. gradual increase in vessel radius
  3. stenosis of a vessel
  4. large increase in blood density
  5. decreased flow velocity

11. Compliance

  1. of the vena cavae is greater than that of the aorta
  2. is a constant for a given blood vessel
  3. can be expressed as the change in volume over change in pressure

12. Arterial pulse pressure

  1. is increased by aortic (valve) insufficiency
  2. is the difference between arterial systolic and arterial diastolic pressures
  3. is decreased by increased heart rate
  4. is increased by increased stroke volume

13. Through the action of the cardiovascular reflexes, an increase in arterial blood pressure would be likely to produce:

  1. increased norepinephrine release on the smooth muscle of veins.
  2. increased release of acetylcholine in the sinoatrial node of the heart.
  3. an decreased rate of firing by the carotid sinus and aortic baroreceptors.
  4. decreased norepinephrine release on the smooth muscle of arteries and arterioles.

14. Blood volume is re-established following hemorrhage by

  1. aldosterone acting on the kidney to conserve sodium and water.
  2. renin acting on the adrenal cortex, releasing aldosterone.
  3. increased drinking due to thirst, and decreased urine loss.
  4. increased erythropoietin release from the spleen, and stimulation of erythrocyte maturation.

15. In the Valsalva maneuver

  1. heart rate rises in stage 2 because of increased venous return to the heart
  2. mouth and/or intrathoracic pressure are increased by conscious action
  3. blood pressure rises in stage 1 because of increased left ventricle emptying
  4. pulse pressure increases in stage 4 because of increased stroke volume
  5. heart rate rises in stage 2 because of decreased blood pressure

16. The diving response

  1. involves bradycardia produced primarily by decreased sympathetic drive to the heart
  2. may be used clinically to suppress paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia
  3. involves increased peripheral resistance and lower blood flow to some tissues
  4. has as a primary function conservation of oxygen for vital aerobic tissues
  5. is only produced by putting one's head under water


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