CV Review, Essentials, Develop. Physiol., Dr. D. Penney
Self-Assessment - Module 20 (cont.)
8. A shift to the left of the hemoglobin-oxygen dissociation curve and decreasing P50 value indicate a decreased affinity for oxygen. (T / F)
9. The largest fractional volume of blood flow in the circulation is normally contained in:
10. Turbulence of fluid flow in the human circulation frequently results from:
- increased hematocrit
- gradual increase in vessel radius
- stenosis of a vessel
- large increase in blood density
- decreased flow velocity
- of the vena cavae is greater than that of the aorta
- is a constant for a given blood vessel
- can be expressed as the change in volume over change in pressure
12. Arterial pulse pressure
- is increased by aortic (valve) insufficiency
- is the difference between arterial systolic and arterial diastolic pressures
- is decreased by increased heart rate
- is increased by increased stroke volume
13. Through the action of the cardiovascular reflexes, an increase in arterial blood pressure would be likely to produce:
- increased norepinephrine release on the smooth muscle of veins.
- increased release of acetylcholine in the sinoatrial node of the heart.
- an decreased rate of firing by the carotid sinus and aortic baroreceptors.
- decreased norepinephrine release on the smooth muscle of arteries and arterioles.
14. Blood volume is re-established following hemorrhage by
- aldosterone acting on the kidney to conserve sodium and water.
- renin acting on the adrenal cortex, releasing aldosterone.
- increased drinking due to thirst, and decreased urine loss.
- increased erythropoietin release from the spleen, and stimulation of erythrocyte maturation.
15. In the Valsalva maneuver
- heart rate rises in stage 2 because of increased venous return to the heart
- mouth and/or intrathoracic pressure are increased by conscious action
- blood pressure rises in stage 1 because of increased left ventricle emptying
- pulse pressure increases in stage 4 because of increased stroke volume
- heart rate rises in stage 2 because of decreased blood pressure
16. The diving response
- involves bradycardia produced primarily by decreased sympathetic drive to the heart
- may be used clinically to suppress paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia
- involves increased peripheral resistance and lower blood flow to some tissues
- has as a primary function conservation of oxygen for vital aerobic tissues
- is only produced by putting one's head under water
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