History of Cardiovascular Physiology, Dr. D. Penney





Hippocrates and Galen:

Four Humours (ascribed to Hippocrates)
  • Blood
  • Yellow bile - found in the gall bladder
  • Black bile - found in the spleen
  • Phlegm - found in the pituitary
  • Three Spirits (added by Galen)
  • 'Natural spirit' of the liver
  • 'Vital spirit' of the heart
  • 'Animal spirit' of the brain



  • Right: Galen





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