History of Cardiovascular Physiology, Dr. D. Penney




Table 1. Some Historical Figures in Cardiovascular Physiology

Concept Discoverer/Observer Year
Concepts of health, 4 humors Hippocrates 400-375 B.C.
Systematic work in biology Aristotle 384-322 B.C.
First human anatomy & physiology Erasistratus 3rd c.B.C.
Dogma of medicine for 1500 yrs. Galen 131-201 A.D.
Dissections, drawings Leonardo da Vinci 1452-1519
Systematic human dissection Andreas Vesalius 1514-1564
Circulation, scientific method William Harvey 1578-1657
Capillaries, RBC (1661) Marcello Malphigi 1628-1694
Oxygenation of blood Richard Lower 1631-1691
Blood flow Isaac Newton 1642-1727
B.P. measurement Stephen Hales 1677-1761
Metabolism eq. with his name Pierre Laplace 1749-1827
Biorheology, heart blood volume Jean Poiseuille 1799-1869
Invention of the stethoscope Rene' Theophile Laennec 1816
Vascular nerves, homeostasis Claude Bernard 1813-1878
Circulation time James Blake 1815-1893
Depressor nerves, kymograph Karl Ludwig 1816-1895
Cardiac output estimation Adolph Fick 1829-1901
Heart rate & B.P. relation Etienne Marey 1830-1904
Turbulence in blood flow Osborne Reynolds 19th c.
Electrocardiography Willem Einthoven 1860-1927
CO poisoning of the circulation John Haldane 1895
Hg sphygmomanometer (1896) S. Riva-Rocci 1863-1937
Law of heart, capillary filtration Ernest Starling 1866-1927
Blood respiratory functions Joseph Barcroft 1872-1947
Adrenergic influences Walter B. Cannon 1871-1945
Cholinergic influences (Ach) Otto Loewi 1873-1961
Books on circulation, APS Pres. Carl J. Wiggers 20th c.
Blood flow Albert Einstein 1879-1955
Vasomotor reflexes Corneille Heymans 1892-
Heart catheterization Werner Forssmann 1904-



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