During the 1920s, 30s and 40s, Carl J. Wiggers, was doing very important work on artificial circulations, shock, the cardiac cycle, and fluid compartments in Cleveland.
Another heroic act in the history of physiology and medicine was carried out by Werner Forssmann in the late 1920s. As a young internist in a German hospital, he was convinced that the heart could be visualized by injecting a radio-opaque dye through a catheter. He inserted the catheter into his arm, took the X-ray, saw the catheter in place, and was shortly thereafter fired from the hospital for his efforts. Fifteen years elapsed before the technique began to find acceptance as an important research and diagnostic technique.
The history of cardiovascular physiology of course does not end here. The pace of discoveries quickened and became so numerous with names such as Sarnoff, Taussig, Braunwald, Guyton, Katz, Rushmer, Black, Burton, Berne, Folkow, etc. There simply is not time or space in this series to discuss them all.
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