The importance of the invention of electrocardiography by Willem Einthoven at the turn of the century should not be underestimated. Although a crude instrument at first, it later developed into a superb non-invasive diagnostic tool.
The same may be said for the invention of the sphygmomanometer for the measurement of blood pressure by Riva-Rocci. The stethoscope had been invented some decades earlier by Rene Laennec in 1816.
Late in the last century the American physiologist, Henry Bowditch, made important observations on the characteristics of muscle contraction. Professor A.V. Hill also made invaluable contributions in the biophysics of muscle contraction.
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