Carbon Monoxide Headquarters
CO and Risk



Carbon Monoxide Poisoning


Effects on Individuals at Special Risk

Certain groups are at increased risk of harm from CO exposure. This generally includes those at the beginning and ending of life (right), and those with chronic medical conditions. For these groups the mandated maximal levels of CO in work and housing environments may be too high, and may on occasion lead to significant deleterious health effects. This is an area of great concern to public health professionals, toxicologists and the medical community generally. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in setting the upper limit for CO in outside air at 9 ppm, was aware of the special risks that CO presents to various groups. Unfortunately, OSHA, CO alarm standards, and a few other special interest groups have not yet fully come to grips with the recognized increased risk to these special groups, and thus may not be fully protective.


  • Those Groups at Special Risk


    During Fetal Development:

    - General:
  • Why Increased Fetal Risk?

  • Higher COHb in Fetus than in Adult

    - Human:
  • Types of Fetal Effects from CO Exposure

  • Case Study involving CO Exposure

  • Lack of Apparent Relationship to COHb

  • Lower Birth Weight of Newborn from Smoking Mother

  • Human Epidemiologic Study of Birth Weight Effects, 1999

  • Article of note

    - Animal:
  • Table 1. Fetal Effects of CO Exposure

  • Table 2. Fetal Effects of CO Exposure

  • Table 3. Fetal Effects of CO Exposure

  • Prenatal Study of CO Effects in Mouse


    Picture right: Joseph Barcroft, father of modern perinatal physiology.

    Heart Diseases:

  • Coronary Artery Disease as a Special Risk Condition

  • Congestive Heart Failure as a Special Risk Condition

  • Cardiovascular Disease as a Special Risk Condition


    Asthma & Pulmonary Diseases:

  • Asthma in Children

  • Asthma Admissions in the Non-elderly


    Normal Humans Under Stress:

  • At high workloads, ie. exercise



    ...... last changed 06/01/04



    Back to COHQ Main Index